“A Practical Engineering Approach to Improving the Reliability of Blast Furnace Tuyeres”

by C. Copeland and S. Street, SeverstalDearborn, chosen AIST 2012 Gold Reliability Achievement Award winner, and presented at AISTech 2013, Pittsburgh, PA USA, May 2013

“High Conductivity Copper in the Blast Furnace” 

by T. Shellhammer, TVR Technologies LLC and R. Walsh, Alabama Copper & Bronze, presented at AISTech 2010, Pittsburgh, PA USA, May 2010

“Copper, Calorizing and Metallurgical Vessels”

by T. Shellhammer, TVR Technologies LLC , and A. Park, Quantum Ceramalloy, presented at Conference of Metallurgists, Toronto, Canada, August 2015

Calorized Copper Microstructure

Microstructure and properties

Calorized Copper Microstructure & Properties

Top Layer Aluminia
VH 125

Layer 2 Intermetallic
VH 120

Layer 3 Cu/Al diffused layer
VH 103

Base Copper
VH 30

VH = Vickers Hardness


Photograph of a calorized sample as received and a mounted and polished cross-section for metallurgical examination. Note uniform thickness of the calorized layer in the cross-sectioned sample.

Molten Iron Splash Testing Calorized Sample

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Molten Iron Splash Testing Calorized Sample

Poured on Copper Blocks 6” x 6” x 1” thick

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Plain Copper

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Inconel Coated Copper

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Calorized Copper

Plain Copper Inconel Coated Copper Calorized Copper
Weight of iron poured

12 lbs.

16 lbs.

130 lbs.

Pour duration

2 min. 50 sec.

3 min. 30 sec.

14 min. 0 sec.


Complete penetration

Complete penetration

Surface undamaged


Calorized Copper Applications in the Blast Furnaces

Calorized Copper Blast Furnace Tuyeres

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Copper Tuyeres before calorizing

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Copper Tuyeres after calorizing


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685 Days -Uncalorized
Worn 3/8” Failed @ Bullet Hole

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774 Days - Calorized
No Wear, Did not Fail Pulled for inspection


Calorized Copper Lance Tips -Basic Oxygen Furnaces (BOF’s)

Results –Calorized BOF Lance Tips

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Plain Tip

120 heats
Port Wear

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Calorized Tip

350 heats

Results –Calorized EAF Lance Tips and Burner Block

Burner Tips

Burner Blocks

Calorized Copper Tuyeres for Iron Foundry Cupolas